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Fjodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski (auch Dostojewskij, Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский [ˈfʲodər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ. Michail Michailowitsch Dostojewski (russisch: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Достое́вский; * November in Moskau; † Juli in Sankt Petersburg) war ein. Fjodor Dostojewski, , behandelt in seinen fünf großen Romanen die moralische Krise des modernen Menschen, der in einer Welt der verlorenen. Fjodor Dostojewski. russischer Schriftsteller des Jahrhunderts. Sprache · Beobachten · Bearbeiten · Fjodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski. Balzac ' Dickens ' Dostojewski (), Frankfurt am Main Bild nachweis Dostojewski liftyoureyes.co:Dostoevskij_jpg.

Dostojewski Wiki

Fjodor Dostojewski. russischer Schriftsteller des Jahrhunderts. Sprache · Beobachten · Bearbeiten · Fjodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski. Wikipedia-Definition: „Als Sakrament bezeichnet man in der Werke, Werke aus den Jahren ; Dostojewski und die Vatertötung“, S. Michail Michailowitsch Dostojewski (russisch: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Достое́вский; * November in Moskau; † Juli in Sankt Petersburg) war ein.

Die Vorfahren hatten einem litauischen Adelszweig der Szlachta angehört. Netschajewa, stammte aus einer wohlhabenden Moskauer Kaufmannsfamilie.

Das Paar hatte acht Kinder, von denen sieben das Erwachsenenalter erreichten. Nach Michail — war der am November im julianischen Kalender : Oktober geborene Fjodor das zweite Kind.

Es folgten Warwara — , Andrei — , Wera — , Nikolai — und Alexandra — Die Mutter hatte die Söhne mit religiösen Kinderbüchern alphabetisiert, und für ihre weitere religiöse Ausbildung kam ein Diakon ins Haus.

Am Petersburg und begann sein Studium im Januar Juni starb nach einem Schlaganfall auch Dostojewskis Vater [22] auf seinem Landsitz.

Ein Nachbar, Pawel Chotjainzew, beschuldigte die Leibeigenen des Verstorbenen, diesen umgebracht zu haben; Dostojewskis Bruder Andrei glaubte daher später, sein Vater sei erschlagen worden.

Als Externer konnte er sich privat eine Wohnung mieten, die er sich zunächst mit Adolph Totleben teilte, dessen älterer Bruder Eduard Iwanowitsch Totleben sich später sowohl bei der Rückkehr aus Sibirien wie auch bei der Genehmigung, wieder nach St.

Petersburg zu ziehen, für ihn einsetzte. Zwölf Monate später wurde er zum Leutnant befördert, und noch ein Jahr später schloss er das Studium ab.

August begann Dostojewski seinen Dienst als Militäringenieur. Um in St. Petersburg bleiben zu können und Zeit zum Schreiben zu haben, nahm er einen unbedeutenden Posten als Militärzeichner an.

Sein Abschiedsgesuch wurde am Oktober angenommen. Januar in seiner Zeitschrift Peterburger Anthologie.

Arme Leute wurde ein enormer Erfolg. Die Begeisterung, die Belinski und seine Freunde für den Debütroman gezeigt hatten, war jedoch schon wieder verflogen; das zweite Werk nahmen sie weitaus kühler auf.

Die meisten dieser Erzählungen erschienen in den Vaterländische Annalen. Das Werk blieb unvollendet. Dostojewski wurde in den frühen Morgenstunden des April verhaftet.

Die Exekution am Dezember auf dem Paradeplatz der Semjonowski-Garde erwies sich als Scheinhinrichtung. November vorgelegt hatte.

Danach gemeiner Soldat. Dezember an. Januar ein. Die politischen Häftlinge waren zusammen mit gewöhnlichen Kriminellen untergebracht.

Die Bedingungen, unter denen die Männer untergebracht und gehalten wurden, waren sehr dürftig. Dostojewski wurde während seiner gesamten Haftzeit in Ketten gehalten.

Er durfte nicht schreiben, verbrachte aber einige Zeit in der Krankenstation, wo er heimlich ein Notizbuch führen konnte. Februar wurde er aus der Katorga entlassen.

Aus gesundheitlichen Gründen blieb er in Omsk noch bis Mitte März und reiste dann ins westsibirische Semipalatinsk heute Semei in Kasachstan , wo er sich dem 7.

Weil sich Freunde für ihn einsetzten, brauchte er nicht in der Kaserne zu wohnen. Vom Frühjahr an teilte er sich eine Datsche mit Alexander Wrangel , einem einflussreichen neuen Freund, der Dostojewski in die bessere Gesellschaft des Ortes einführte; dank Wrangels Hilfe wurde Dostojewski im November auch zum Offizier befördert.

Bereits hatte Dostojewski die Familie Issajew kennengelernt. Februar wurde das Paar in Kusnezk , wo Marija zu diesem Zeitpunkt lebte, getraut.

Marija brachte ihren 9-jährigen Sohn Pawel mit in die Ehe. Petersburg gelitten und im Mai deswegen einen Arzt, Stepan Janowski , konsultiert.

April erhielt Dostojewski seine Bürgerrechte zurück. März aus dem Militärdienst entlassen wurde. Er durfte in den europäischen Teil Russlands zurückkehren; allerdings war es ihm verboten, sich in St.

Petersburg oder Moskau niederzulassen. Er wurde unter Polizeiaufsicht gestellt. Im Juli siedelte er nach Twer über. Petersburg zurückkehren.

Das war jedoch nicht der Fall. Im Gegenteil, einer der Zensoren kritisierte, dass potenzielle Straftäter durch Dostojewskis Schilderung nicht ausreichend abgeschreckt würden.

Dostojewskis Bruder Michail hatte die Umbruchstimmung Ende der 50er Jahre genutzt, um die Konzession für eine neue Zeitschrift zu erlangen.

Sie begann am 7. Juni und führte ihn über Deutschland und Belgien nach Paris , wo er zwei Wochen blieb und die Gelegenheit auch nutzte, um gute Ärzte zu konsultieren.

Er schilderte darin auch die Abscheu, die er gegenüber dem Materialismus europäischer Städte — besonders in London — empfunden hatte.

Mai verboten. Vermutlich bereits im Winter hatte Dostojewski eine Liebesbeziehung mit der jungen Polina Suslowa begonnen. Sie begleitete ihn nach Baden-Baden , wo er die Spielbank besuchte.

Im Januar gründete er, wieder zusammen mit seinem Bruder Michail, das Monatsblatt Epocha , das die Nachfolge der verbotenen Wremja antreten sollte.

Dostojewski startete die Zeitschrift am März mit der ersten Folge seiner Prosaarbeit Aufzeichnungen aus dem Kellerloch. April starb seine Ehefrau und am Juli überraschend auch der jährige Michail; Dostojewski willigte ein, seine Witwe und die Kinder zu ernähren.

Im Juni musste Dostojewski den Betrieb einstellen; die satirische Erzählung Das Krokodil , die er im Februar zu veröffentlichen begonnen hatte, blieb unvollendet.

Bereits seit hatte sich Dostojewski mit seinem nächsten Werk, Schuld und Sühne , beschäftigt. Alle behandeln die Auswirkung der Wirklichkeit auf die heranwachsende Generation; ihr Anliegen war eine Diagnose der Gegenwart, d.

Um weitere 3. Oktober einen Roman mit einem Umfang von mindestens zehn Druckbögen abzuliefern. Oktober eine Stenographin , die jährige Anna Snitkina , mit deren Hilfe er den Roman pünktlich ablieferte.

Der Spieler war Dostojewskis einziger Roman, der nicht als Feuilletonroman erschien. Stellowski war Buchhändler und bereitete die erste Gesamtausgabe von Dostojewskis Werk vor, die den kurzen Roman als Bonustext enthalten sollte.

November machte er ihr einen Heiratsantrag. Februar in der Dreifaltigkeitskathedrale statt. Dostojewski konnte mit Geld nicht umgehen, hatte Schulden und eine Anzahl von Verwandten, die versorgt werden wollten.

Um die Reise zu finanzieren, verpfändete sie ihre Mitgift. Kurz vor der Abreise stellten zwei der Gläubiger Forderungen.

Das Paar beschloss, so lange im Ausland zu bleiben, bis Dostojewski sich durch neue Arbeiten finanziell besser stellte.

Die Reise begann am April und führte zunächst nach Dresden. März Sonja zur Welt brachte, die bereits nach drei Monaten verstarb.

In Moskau ereignete sich am November der Mord an Iwan Iwanow, einem Studenten, der der Narodnaja Rasprawa angehörte, einer von Sergei Netschajew gegründeten revolutionären Untergrundorganisation.

Umgebracht hatten ihn, nach einer Meinungsverschiedenheit, seine eigenen Kampfgenossen. Mit der komplex angelegten Hauptfigur Stawrogin, einem amoralischen, jenseits von Gut und Böse agierenden Übermenschen , hat Dostojewski ein dunkles Gegenstück zu dem Christus -gleichen Fürst Myschkin geschaffen.

Klar ist die ideengeschichtliche Genealogie herausgearbeitet, die die aufgeklärte Generation der er Jahre als die Ziehväter der Nihilisten der er Jahre benennt.

Juli , wurde der Sohn Fjodor geboren. Jahrhundert wegen Dostojewskis antisemitischer Position aber auch Kritik fand. Die Petersburger Welt aus Bürgern und Adligen, in der Arkadij sich bewegt, erweist sich dabei als aus der Ordnung geraten und moralisch verkommen.

Der Roman erschien von Januar an in den Vaterländischen Annalen. Im Januar begann Dostojewski das Tagebuch eines Schriftstellers , das nach seinem Ausscheiden bei Graschdanin nicht mehr erschienen war, auf eigene Rechnung zu verlegen.

Mai verstarb überraschend das jüngste Kind, der knapp dreijährige Aljoscha. Die zentralen Fragen, die von den Protagonisten auf jeweils eigene Weise beantwortet werden, sind die nach der Existenz Gottes und dem Sinn des Lebens.

Nach seiner Ermordung sind zwei von ihnen tatverdächtig, aber die beiden anderen fühlen sich moralisch mitverantwortlich.

In seinen letzten Lebensjahren, in denen er zunehmend krank war, wurden Dostojewski viele Ehrungen zuteil. Dezember wurde er zum Korrespondenzmitglied der Russischen Akademie der Wissenschaften gewählt.

Februar wählte die Slawische Wohltätigkeitsgesellschaft in Sankt Petersburg ihn zu ihrem Vizepräsidenten. Dostojewskis gesundheitlicher Zustand verschlechterte sich rapide.

Vom 7. Februar an erlitt er Lungenblutungen, die am Abend des 9. Februar nach dem julianischen Kalender am Januar zu seinem Tode führten.

An der Trauerprozession, die am Über den Rahmen der literarischen Schulen, von denen er gelernt hat, ging Dostojewski stets hinaus. Erzählvorgang und Plot befinden sich hier in einer komplexen wechselseitigen Abhängigkeit, und mit kalkulierter Unbestimmtheit wird der Leser bis zum Schluss im Unklaren gehalten, ob er es mit der Geschichte einer Paranoia oder mit einem rein fantastischen Geschehen zu tun hat.

Die Diagnose des gesellschaftlichen Zustandes als Chaos wurde zum Strukturprinzip dieser beiden Romane, insbesondere im wenig gelesenen Jüngling.

Rosa Luxemburg hat auf die dramatischen Elemente von Dostojewskis Romanen hingewiesen: sie strotzten derart von Handlung, Erlebnis und Spannung, dass ihre sich übereinanderstürmende sinnverwirrende Fülle das epische Element des Romans zu erdrücken, seine Schranken jeden Augenblick zu sprengen drohe.

Verbrechen, Krankheit, Sexualität, Religion und Politik würden gezielt eingesetzt, um den Leser zu fesseln. Dinge und Charaktere werden nicht vollständig erzählt.

Der Leser muss sich durch eine Reihe von Zügen, Andeutungen und Gesprächen etwas zusammenkonstruieren, was aber nie hinreicht, eine vollkommen logische Erwartung zu schaffen.

Oft tritt ein Erzähler auf, der das Ganze nicht versteht, vieles nicht bemerkt und von Gerüchten berichtet. Das Verschweigen oder das unklare Andeuten von Motiven sind weitere Elemente der gezielt aufgebauten Spannung.

Oft gibt Geld dem Geschehen eine ganz unerwartete Richtung. Viele der Personen haben einen Stich ins Verrückte oder sonderbare Allüren. Unverständliches wird übertrieben.

Die erste Gesamtausgabe von Dostojewskis Werk erschien Die Dostojewski-Rezeption war schon im Jahrhundert ambivalent gewesen. Als Nikolai Michailowski in seinem linken Blatt Otetschestwennye Sapiski den Roman Der Jüngling herausbrachte, hatte er seinen Abonnenten erklären müssen, warum er ausgerechnet dem Autor des antisozialistischen Romans Die Dämonen Raum geben wollte.

In der Zeit der Sowjetunion nahm die Ambivalenz noch zu. Aus einer Debatte, die in den er Jahren um die Form seines Schreibens geführt wurde, entstand eine der bedeutendsten Arbeiten, die der russischsprachige Raum zu diesem Thema hervorgebracht hat: Michail Bachtins Probleme der Poetik Dostoevskijs Die persönlichen Standpunkte Dostojewskis seien in seinen Romanen kaum in den Vordergrund getreten.

Wissenschaftliche Publikationen konzentrierten sich von da an auf ideologische Fragen. Bereits angekündigte Publikationen von Briefen und einer Einzelausgabe des Romans Die Dämonen kamen nicht zustande, und mit Ausnahme von Grigori Roschals Peterburgskaya noch entstand bis keine weitere Filmadaption.

Als während des Zweiten Weltkrieges Bedarf an nationalen Identifikationsfiguren entstand, die den Patriotismus anfachen sollten, wurde Dostojewski vorübergehend rehabilitiert, etwa durch Wladimir Ermilow, der Die Dämonen nun als brillantes prophetisches Porträt des modernen Faschismus deutete.

Zu einer dauerhaften Liberalisierung kam es erst mit dem Aufstieg von Chruschtschow. Von bis erschien eine neue, von Leonid Grossman betreute zehnbändige Gesamtausgabe.

Weitere frühe deutsche Übersetzer waren L. Hauff und Paul Styczynski. Im frühen Jahrhundert übersetzte Elisabeth Kaerrick unter dem Pseudonym E.

Die Reihe umfasst 22 Bände und sieben Zusatzbände und erschien zwischen und In der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik schuf der Aufbau-Verlag eine dreizehnbändige Ausgabe, die fertig wurde und das gesamte belletristische Werk umfasst.

Sie erschienen zunächst bei Ammann und von an auch als Fischer -Taschenbücher. Geier hat daneben auch einige kleinere Werke Dostojewskis neu übersetzt.

Auch in anderen europäischen Ländern begann die Übersetzungsarbeit erst nach Dostojewskis Tod. Der Einfluss, den Dostojewski auf die abendländische Geistes- und Literaturgeschichte ausgeübt hat, ist immens und in zahllosen wissenschaftlichen Publikationen beschrieben worden.

In der Auseinandersetzung mit Dostojewskis Romanen bot sich ihm Gelegenheit, sein eigenes hochambivalentes Verhältnis zum Christentum abzuarbeiten.

Jahrzehnte vor der Begründung der Psychoanalyse sondierte Dostojewski minutiös die menschliche Seele, wies ihre inneren Widersprüche und die Macht des Unbewussten auf und bemühte sich um eine Rehabilitierung des Irrationalen.

Die Existenzialisten fühlten sich von Dostojewski angesprochen, weil er den Menschen immer wieder als einen in der Gottverlassenheit ganz auf sich Zurückgeworfenen beschrieben hatte.

In den er Jahren entstand durch Beiträge u. Goldstein und Felix Philipp Ingold eine Debatte über Dostojewskis Antisemitismus , der sich hauptsächlich im Tagebuch gezeigt hat, als stereotype, verächtlich- und lächerlichmachende Zeichnung jüdischer Figuren, die auch in den Aufzeichnungen aus einem Totenhaus , in Schuld und Sühne und in Die Dämonen sichtbar geworden ist.

Dostojewskis Überlegungen zur russischen Identität unter dem Ansturm westlicher Wertvorstellungen haben in jüngerer Zeit Orhan Pamuk angeregt, die türkische Identität neu zu begreifen.

Dazai Osamu. Die hitzige Atmosphäre der Romane, die von religiösen, psychologischen, philosophischen und oft auch literarischen Gedanken übervoll ist, gefiel freilich nicht jedem.

Er ist das Kokain und Morphin der modernen Literatur. Lange bevor Literatur- und Medienwissenschaftler wie Irmela Schneider die Problematik der Literaturadaption theoretisch umrissen haben, war Dostojewski sich über einige zentrale Schwierigkeiten der Transformation von Texten so genau im Klaren, dass er Warwara Obolenskaja, die eine Dramatisierung von Schuld und Sühne begann, nicht nur strategische Ratschläge, sondern auch eine elementare Theorie der Adaption geben konnte.

Anders als die Adaptionen von Werken z. Dostojewski , Dostojewskij und Dostoevsky sind Weiterleitungen auf diesen Artikel. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Dostojewski Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.

Die Spielhallen in Wiesbaden oben und in Baden-Baden unten. Beide besuchte Dostojewskis erstmals Von bis zur Gegenwart. Stefan Zweig: Drei Meister.

Balzac — Dickens — Dostojewski. Insel Verlag, Leipzig , S. Steven G. Eine Schriftstellerexistenz zwischen Aristokratie, Künstlertum und Kommerz.

In: Dostoevsky Studies. Christian Kühn: Dostojewskij und das Geld. In: Deutsche Dostojewskij-Gesellschaft. In: Enzyklo.

Abgerufen am September Neil Heims: Biography of Fyodor Dostoevsky. In: Fyodor Dostoevsky. Kenneth A. Lantz: The Dostoevsky Encyclopedia.

Dezember His Life and Work. In: Harold Bloom Hrsg. Katya Tolstaya: Kaleidoscope. Dostoevsky and the Early Dialectical Theology.

The Quest for the Earthly Paradise. Robert L. The Seeds of Revolt, — Treadgold: The West in Russia and China. Religious and Secular Thought in Modern Times.

Volume 1: Russia — Konstantin Mochulsky: Dostoevsky. Joseph Frank: Dostoevsky. A Writer in His Time. In: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Dostojewskij-Gesellschaft.

In: Michael Wegner Hrsg. Zur internationalen Wirkung der russischen und sowjetischen Literatur im Schiller Universität, Jena In: Peter Sekirin Hrsg.

In: Die Urgestalt der Brüder Karamasoff. Dostojewskis Quellen, Entwürfe und Fragmente. Piper-Verlag, München , S. In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.

Princeton, New Jersey , S. Before the war of he signed in Ukrainian - "Mykhailo" and only during the war, when he worked as a military doctor, he began to sign in Russian - "Mikhail".

From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, and in , he was appointed a senior physician. In he married Maria Nechayeva.

The following year, he took up a post at the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. Mikhail Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya born Nechayeva. He was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, which was in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow.

Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age. From the age of three, he was read heroic sagas, fairy tales and legends by his nanny, Alena Frolovna, an especially influential figure in his upbringing and love for fictional stories.

His parents introduced him to a wide range of literature, including Russian writers Karamzin , Pushkin and Derzhavin ; Gothic fiction such as Ann Radcliffe ; romantic works by Schiller and Goethe ; heroic tales by Miguel de Cervantes and Walter Scott ; and Homer 's epics.

Some of his childhood experiences found their way into his writings. When a nine-year-old girl had been raped by a drunk, he was asked to fetch his father to attend to her.

The incident haunted him, and the theme of the desire of a mature man for a young girl appears in The Devils , The Brothers Karamazov , Crime and Punishment , and other writings.

Although Dostoevsky had a delicate physical constitution, his parents described him as hot-headed, stubborn and cheeky.

He was described as a pale, introverted dreamer and an over-excitable romantic. Dostoevsky felt out of place among his aristocratic classmates at the Moscow school, and the experience was later reflected in some of his works, notably The Adolescent.

On 27 September Dostoevsky's mother died of tuberculosis. The previous May, his parents had sent Dostoevsky and his brother Mikhail to St Petersburg to attend the free Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute , forcing the brothers to abandon their academic studies for military careers.

Dostoevsky entered the academy in January , but only with the help of family members. Mikhail was refused admission on health grounds and was sent to an academy in Tallinn , Estonia then known as Reval.

Dostoevsky disliked the academy, primarily because of his lack of interest in science, mathematics and military engineering and his preference for drawing and architecture.

As his friend Konstantin Trutovsky once said, "There was no student in the entire institution with less of a military bearing than F.

He moved clumsily and jerkily; his uniform hung awkwardly on him; and his knapsack, shako and rifle all looked like some sort of fetter he had been forced to wear for a time and which lay heavily on him.

Although he was solitary and inhabited his own literary world, he was respected by his classmates. His reclusiveness and interest in religion earned him the nickname "Monk Photius ".

Signs of Dostoevsky's epilepsy may have first appeared on learning of the death of his father on 16 June , [28] although the reports of a seizure originated from accounts written by his daughter later expanded by Sigmund Freud [29] which are now considered to be unreliable.

His father's official cause of death was an apoplectic stroke, but a neighbour, Pavel Khotiaintsev, accused the father's serfs of murder.

Had the serfs been found guilty and sent to Siberia , Khotiaintsev would have been in a position to buy the vacated land.

The serfs were acquitted in a trial in Tula , but Dostoevsky's brother Andrei perpetuated the story. He visited Mikhail in Reval, and frequently attended concerts, operas, plays and ballets.

During this time, two of his friends introduced him to gambling. On 12 August Dostoevsky took a job as a lieutenant engineer and lived with Adolph Totleben in an apartment owned by Dr.

Rizenkampf, a friend of Mikhail. Rizenkampf characterised him as "no less good-natured and no less courteous than his brother, but when not in a good mood he often looked at everything through dark glasses, became vexed, forgot good manners, and sometimes was carried away to the point of abusiveness and loss of self-awareness".

None were successful, and his financial difficulties led him to write a novel. Dostoevsky completed his first novel, Poor Folk , in May His friend Dmitry Grigorovich , with whom he was sharing an apartment at the time, took the manuscript to the poet Nikolay Nekrasov , who in turn showed it to the renowned and influential literary critic Vissarion Belinsky.

Belinsky described it as Russia's first " social novel ". Dostoevsky felt that his military career would endanger his now flourishing literary career, so he wrote a letter asking to resign his post.

Shortly thereafter, he wrote his second novel, The Double , which appeared in the journal Notes of the Fatherland on 30 January , before being published in February.

Around the same time, Dostoevsky discovered socialism through the writings of French thinkers Fourier , Cabet , Proudhon and Saint-Simon.

Through his relationship with Belinsky he expanded his knowledge of the philosophy of socialism.

He was attracted to its logic, its sense of justice and its preoccupation with the destitute and the disadvantaged. However, his relationship with Belinsky became increasingly strained as Belinsky's atheism and dislike of religion clashed with Dostoevsky's Russian Orthodox beliefs.

Dostoevsky eventually parted with him and his associates. After The Double received negative reviews, Dostoevsky's health declined and he had more frequent seizures, but he continued writing.

From to he released several short stories in the magazine Annals of the Fatherland , including " Mr. These stories were unsuccessful, leaving Dostoevsky once more in financial trouble, so he joined the utopian socialist Betekov circle, a tightly knit community which helped him to survive.

When the circle dissolved, Dostoevsky befriended Apollon Maykov and his brother Valerian. In , on the recommendation of the poet Aleksey Pleshcheyev , [41] he joined the Petrashevsky Circle , founded by Mikhail Petrashevsky , who had proposed social reforms in Russia.

Mikhail Bakunin once wrote to Alexander Herzen that the group was "the most innocent and harmless company" and its members were "systematic opponents of all revolutionary goals and means".

In , the first parts of Netochka Nezvanova , a novel Dostoevsky had been planning since , were published in Annals of the Fatherland , but his banishment ended the project.

Dostoevsky never attempted to complete it. Dostoevsky was accused of reading works by Belinsky, including the banned Letter to Gogol , [46] and of circulating copies of these and other works.

Antonelli, the government agent who had reported the group, wrote in his statement that at least one of the papers criticised Russian politics and religion.

Dostoevsky responded to these charges by declaring that he had read the essays only "as a literary monument, neither more nor less"; he spoke of "personality and human egoism" rather than of politics.

Even so, he and his fellow "conspirators" were arrested on 23 April at the request of Count A. The members were held in the well-defended Peter and Paul Fortress , which housed the most dangerous convicts.

They sentenced the members of the circle to death by firing squad, and the prisoners were taken to Semyonov Place in St Petersburg on 23 December where they were split into three-man groups.

Dostoevsky was the third in the second row; next to him stood Pleshcheyev and Durov. The execution was stayed when a cart delivered a letter from the Tsar commuting the sentence.

Dostoevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk , Siberia, followed by a term of compulsory military service.

After a fourteen-day sleigh ride, the prisoners reached Tobolsk , a prisoner way station. Despite the circumstances, Dostoevsky consoled the other prisoners, such as the Petrashevist Ivan Yastrzhembsky, who was surprised by Dostoevsky's kindness and eventually abandoned his decision to commit suicide.

In Tobolsk, the members received food and clothes from the Decembrist women, as well as several copies of the New Testament with a ten-ruble banknote inside each copy.

Eleven days later, Dostoevsky reached Omsk [48] [50] together with just one other member of the Petrashevsky Circle, the poet Sergei Durov.

In summer, intolerable closeness; in winter, unendurable cold. All the floors were rotten. Filth on the floors an inch thick; one could slip and fall We were packed like herrings in a barrel There was no room to turn around.

From dusk to dawn it was impossible not to behave like pigs Fleas, lice, and black beetles by the bushel Classified as "one of the most dangerous convicts", Dostoevsky had his hands and feet shackled until his release.

He was only permitted to read his New Testament Bible. In addition to his seizures, he had haemorrhoids , lost weight and was "burned by some fever, trembling and feeling too hot or too cold every night".

The smell of the privy pervaded the entire building, and the small bathroom had to suffice for more than people.

Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels. He was respected by most of the other prisoners, and despised by some because of his supposedly xenophobic statements.

After his release on 14 February , Dostoevsky asked Mikhail to help him financially and to send him books by Vico , Guizot , Ranke , Hegel and Kant.

Around November , he met Baron Alexander Egorovich Wrangel, an admirer of his books, who had attended the aborted execution.

They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk. Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short.

He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes.

It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was. In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines.

Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk , where he died in August Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul.

In Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles.

As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life.

Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February , even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage.

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Describing their relationship, he wrote: "Because of her strange, suspicious and fantastic character, we were definitely not happy together, but we could not stop loving each other; and the more unhappy we were, the more attached to each other we became".

They mostly lived apart. In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions , in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation , materialism , Catholicism and Protestantism.

From August to October , Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. He met his second love, Polina Suslova , in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden.

In his wife Maria and his brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family.

The failure of Epoch , the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya , worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy.

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February in the periodical The Russian Messenger , [71] attracting at least new subscribers to the magazine.

Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky , that he would complete The Gambler , a short novel focused on gambling addiction , by November, although he had not yet begun writing it.

One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina.

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance.

His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy. The 7, rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables.

On 14 April , they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. They stayed in Berlin and visited the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden , where he sought inspiration for his writing.

They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt , Darmstadt , Heidelberg and Karlsruhe. They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden , where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table.

In September , Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot , and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January Their first child, Sonya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden , and was born in Geneva on 5 March The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair".

In April , Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate.

After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November , Dostoevsky began writing Demons.

During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot , because he was concerned about potential problems with customs.

The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon originally planned for three months that had lasted over four years.

Back in Russia in July , the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after.

They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued.

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments.

Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov.

Around early the family spent several months in Staraya Russa , a town known for its mineral spa. Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May , either from typhus or malaria , [87] and Anna developed an abscess on her throat.

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife.

Although they only accepted cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons.

Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year.

In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary.

In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy. In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: on 11 June for citing the words of Prince Meshchersky without permission, and again on 23 March Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

Dostoevsky accepted. As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia.

Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh. During his stay he began The Adolescent.

He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there.

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January. The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother.

It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works. In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary.

The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics. The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books.

Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him. With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa.

In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again. He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate.

When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul.

This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures.

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood.

In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May.

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg.

Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured.

On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow.

On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience.

His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him. Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon.

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners.

On 25 January , while searching for members of the terrorist organisation Narodnaya Volya "The People's Will" who would soon assassinate Tsar Alexander II, the Tsar's secret police executed a search warrant in the apartment of one of Dostoevsky's neighbours [ citation needed ].

On the following day, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder.

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank:.

It was this parable of transgression, repentance, and forgiveness that he wished to leave as a last heritage to his children, and it may well be seen as his own ultimate understanding of the meaning of his life and the message of his work.

Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew —15 : "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me?

And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness", and he finished with "Hear now—permit it.

Do not restrain me! It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: [] [].

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit.

Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s. He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale.

Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more.

She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him. Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends.

She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life.

Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia.

While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people".

He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes.

His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything".

In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism.

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great.

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God.

He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival ' ".

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy.

He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity.

For all that, to place politically Dostoevsky is not that simple, but: as a Christian, he rejected the atheistic socialism; as a traditionalist, he rejected the destruction of the institutions and, as a pacifist, any violent method or upheaval led by both progressives or reactionaries.

He supported private property and business rights, and did not agree with many criticisms of the free market from the socialist utopians of his time.

During the Russo-Turkish War , Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted. He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.

Jewish characters in Dostoevsky's works have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. But as you say, its century existence proves that this tribe has exceptional vitality, which would not help, during the course of its history, taking the form of various Status in Statu Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks , dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war and no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it off to Asia.

Dostoevsky was an Orthodox Christian , [] was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age. Sergius Trinity Monastery.

According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke 's Die Stunden der Andacht "Hours of Devotion" , which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones.

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically. Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky , an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs.

Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes , short stories, essays, pamphlets , limericks , epigrams and poems. He wrote more than letters, a dozen of which are lost.

Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological and philosophical ideas in his writings. His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality.

Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", [] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent.

The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism , [] [] but his style gradually became more individual.

After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing.

Elements of gothic fiction , [] romanticism , [] and satire [] are observable in some of his books. He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details.

An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony , the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives.

Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony , developed by Mikhail Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works.

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature. His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary.

Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre.

In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast , Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know".

It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.

In an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1, copies.

Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his novel The Master of Petersburg. The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December , and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June , the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro.

The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides.

Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Some critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov , Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov , viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic.

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism.

His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired.

Dostojewski Wiki Video

Im Juni musste Dostojewski den Betrieb just click for source die satirische Erzählung Das Krokodildie er im Februar zu veröffentlichen begonnen hatte, blieb unvollendet. Übertragen von E. Ihr Familienleben war unglücklich und sie fand es schwierigmit seinen Anfällen zu bewältigen. Lauer, Reinhard In: Heiner Timmermann Hrsg. Press,S. Gor'kogo, Moskau Princeton University Press. Juli markiert das Ende eines Flitterwochen ursprünglich für drei Monate geplantdie mehr als vier Jahre gedauert hatte.

Januar ein. Die politischen Häftlinge waren zusammen mit gewöhnlichen Kriminellen untergebracht. Die Bedingungen, unter denen die Männer untergebracht und gehalten wurden, waren sehr dürftig.

Dostojewski wurde während seiner gesamten Haftzeit in Ketten gehalten. Er durfte nicht schreiben, verbrachte aber einige Zeit in der Krankenstation, wo er heimlich ein Notizbuch führen konnte.

Februar wurde er aus der Katorga entlassen. Aus gesundheitlichen Gründen blieb er in Omsk noch bis Mitte März und reiste dann ins westsibirische Semipalatinsk heute Semei in Kasachstan , wo er sich dem 7.

Weil sich Freunde für ihn einsetzten, brauchte er nicht in der Kaserne zu wohnen. Vom Frühjahr an teilte er sich eine Datsche mit Alexander Wrangel , einem einflussreichen neuen Freund, der Dostojewski in die bessere Gesellschaft des Ortes einführte; dank Wrangels Hilfe wurde Dostojewski im November auch zum Offizier befördert.

Bereits hatte Dostojewski die Familie Issajew kennengelernt. Februar wurde das Paar in Kusnezk , wo Marija zu diesem Zeitpunkt lebte, getraut.

Marija brachte ihren 9-jährigen Sohn Pawel mit in die Ehe. Petersburg gelitten und im Mai deswegen einen Arzt, Stepan Janowski , konsultiert.

April erhielt Dostojewski seine Bürgerrechte zurück. März aus dem Militärdienst entlassen wurde. Er durfte in den europäischen Teil Russlands zurückkehren; allerdings war es ihm verboten, sich in St.

Petersburg oder Moskau niederzulassen. Er wurde unter Polizeiaufsicht gestellt. Im Juli siedelte er nach Twer über.

Petersburg zurückkehren. Das war jedoch nicht der Fall. Im Gegenteil, einer der Zensoren kritisierte, dass potenzielle Straftäter durch Dostojewskis Schilderung nicht ausreichend abgeschreckt würden.

Dostojewskis Bruder Michail hatte die Umbruchstimmung Ende der 50er Jahre genutzt, um die Konzession für eine neue Zeitschrift zu erlangen.

Sie begann am 7. Juni und führte ihn über Deutschland und Belgien nach Paris , wo er zwei Wochen blieb und die Gelegenheit auch nutzte, um gute Ärzte zu konsultieren.

Er schilderte darin auch die Abscheu, die er gegenüber dem Materialismus europäischer Städte — besonders in London — empfunden hatte.

Mai verboten. Vermutlich bereits im Winter hatte Dostojewski eine Liebesbeziehung mit der jungen Polina Suslowa begonnen.

Sie begleitete ihn nach Baden-Baden , wo er die Spielbank besuchte. Im Januar gründete er, wieder zusammen mit seinem Bruder Michail, das Monatsblatt Epocha , das die Nachfolge der verbotenen Wremja antreten sollte.

Dostojewski startete die Zeitschrift am März mit der ersten Folge seiner Prosaarbeit Aufzeichnungen aus dem Kellerloch.

April starb seine Ehefrau und am Juli überraschend auch der jährige Michail; Dostojewski willigte ein, seine Witwe und die Kinder zu ernähren.

Im Juni musste Dostojewski den Betrieb einstellen; die satirische Erzählung Das Krokodil , die er im Februar zu veröffentlichen begonnen hatte, blieb unvollendet.

Bereits seit hatte sich Dostojewski mit seinem nächsten Werk, Schuld und Sühne , beschäftigt. Alle behandeln die Auswirkung der Wirklichkeit auf die heranwachsende Generation; ihr Anliegen war eine Diagnose der Gegenwart, d.

Um weitere 3. Oktober einen Roman mit einem Umfang von mindestens zehn Druckbögen abzuliefern. Oktober eine Stenographin , die jährige Anna Snitkina , mit deren Hilfe er den Roman pünktlich ablieferte.

Der Spieler war Dostojewskis einziger Roman, der nicht als Feuilletonroman erschien. Stellowski war Buchhändler und bereitete die erste Gesamtausgabe von Dostojewskis Werk vor, die den kurzen Roman als Bonustext enthalten sollte.

November machte er ihr einen Heiratsantrag. Februar in der Dreifaltigkeitskathedrale statt. Dostojewski konnte mit Geld nicht umgehen, hatte Schulden und eine Anzahl von Verwandten, die versorgt werden wollten.

Um die Reise zu finanzieren, verpfändete sie ihre Mitgift. Kurz vor der Abreise stellten zwei der Gläubiger Forderungen.

Das Paar beschloss, so lange im Ausland zu bleiben, bis Dostojewski sich durch neue Arbeiten finanziell besser stellte. Die Reise begann am April und führte zunächst nach Dresden.

März Sonja zur Welt brachte, die bereits nach drei Monaten verstarb. In Moskau ereignete sich am November der Mord an Iwan Iwanow, einem Studenten, der der Narodnaja Rasprawa angehörte, einer von Sergei Netschajew gegründeten revolutionären Untergrundorganisation.

Umgebracht hatten ihn, nach einer Meinungsverschiedenheit, seine eigenen Kampfgenossen. Mit der komplex angelegten Hauptfigur Stawrogin, einem amoralischen, jenseits von Gut und Böse agierenden Übermenschen , hat Dostojewski ein dunkles Gegenstück zu dem Christus -gleichen Fürst Myschkin geschaffen.

Klar ist die ideengeschichtliche Genealogie herausgearbeitet, die die aufgeklärte Generation der er Jahre als die Ziehväter der Nihilisten der er Jahre benennt.

Juli , wurde der Sohn Fjodor geboren. Jahrhundert wegen Dostojewskis antisemitischer Position aber auch Kritik fand.

Die Petersburger Welt aus Bürgern und Adligen, in der Arkadij sich bewegt, erweist sich dabei als aus der Ordnung geraten und moralisch verkommen.

Der Roman erschien von Januar an in den Vaterländischen Annalen. Im Januar begann Dostojewski das Tagebuch eines Schriftstellers , das nach seinem Ausscheiden bei Graschdanin nicht mehr erschienen war, auf eigene Rechnung zu verlegen.

Mai verstarb überraschend das jüngste Kind, der knapp dreijährige Aljoscha. Die zentralen Fragen, die von den Protagonisten auf jeweils eigene Weise beantwortet werden, sind die nach der Existenz Gottes und dem Sinn des Lebens.

Nach seiner Ermordung sind zwei von ihnen tatverdächtig, aber die beiden anderen fühlen sich moralisch mitverantwortlich.

In seinen letzten Lebensjahren, in denen er zunehmend krank war, wurden Dostojewski viele Ehrungen zuteil.

Dezember wurde er zum Korrespondenzmitglied der Russischen Akademie der Wissenschaften gewählt.

Februar wählte die Slawische Wohltätigkeitsgesellschaft in Sankt Petersburg ihn zu ihrem Vizepräsidenten.

Dostojewskis gesundheitlicher Zustand verschlechterte sich rapide. Vom 7. Februar an erlitt er Lungenblutungen, die am Abend des 9.

Februar nach dem julianischen Kalender am Januar zu seinem Tode führten. An der Trauerprozession, die am Über den Rahmen der literarischen Schulen, von denen er gelernt hat, ging Dostojewski stets hinaus.

Erzählvorgang und Plot befinden sich hier in einer komplexen wechselseitigen Abhängigkeit, und mit kalkulierter Unbestimmtheit wird der Leser bis zum Schluss im Unklaren gehalten, ob er es mit der Geschichte einer Paranoia oder mit einem rein fantastischen Geschehen zu tun hat.

Die Diagnose des gesellschaftlichen Zustandes als Chaos wurde zum Strukturprinzip dieser beiden Romane, insbesondere im wenig gelesenen Jüngling.

Rosa Luxemburg hat auf die dramatischen Elemente von Dostojewskis Romanen hingewiesen: sie strotzten derart von Handlung, Erlebnis und Spannung, dass ihre sich übereinanderstürmende sinnverwirrende Fülle das epische Element des Romans zu erdrücken, seine Schranken jeden Augenblick zu sprengen drohe.

Verbrechen, Krankheit, Sexualität, Religion und Politik würden gezielt eingesetzt, um den Leser zu fesseln. Dinge und Charaktere werden nicht vollständig erzählt.

Der Leser muss sich durch eine Reihe von Zügen, Andeutungen und Gesprächen etwas zusammenkonstruieren, was aber nie hinreicht, eine vollkommen logische Erwartung zu schaffen.

Oft tritt ein Erzähler auf, der das Ganze nicht versteht, vieles nicht bemerkt und von Gerüchten berichtet.

Das Verschweigen oder das unklare Andeuten von Motiven sind weitere Elemente der gezielt aufgebauten Spannung.

Oft gibt Geld dem Geschehen eine ganz unerwartete Richtung. Viele der Personen haben einen Stich ins Verrückte oder sonderbare Allüren.

Unverständliches wird übertrieben. Die erste Gesamtausgabe von Dostojewskis Werk erschien Die Dostojewski-Rezeption war schon im Jahrhundert ambivalent gewesen.

Als Nikolai Michailowski in seinem linken Blatt Otetschestwennye Sapiski den Roman Der Jüngling herausbrachte, hatte er seinen Abonnenten erklären müssen, warum er ausgerechnet dem Autor des antisozialistischen Romans Die Dämonen Raum geben wollte.

In der Zeit der Sowjetunion nahm die Ambivalenz noch zu. Aus einer Debatte, die in den er Jahren um die Form seines Schreibens geführt wurde, entstand eine der bedeutendsten Arbeiten, die der russischsprachige Raum zu diesem Thema hervorgebracht hat: Michail Bachtins Probleme der Poetik Dostoevskijs Die persönlichen Standpunkte Dostojewskis seien in seinen Romanen kaum in den Vordergrund getreten.

Wissenschaftliche Publikationen konzentrierten sich von da an auf ideologische Fragen. Bereits angekündigte Publikationen von Briefen und einer Einzelausgabe des Romans Die Dämonen kamen nicht zustande, und mit Ausnahme von Grigori Roschals Peterburgskaya noch entstand bis keine weitere Filmadaption.

Als während des Zweiten Weltkrieges Bedarf an nationalen Identifikationsfiguren entstand, die den Patriotismus anfachen sollten, wurde Dostojewski vorübergehend rehabilitiert, etwa durch Wladimir Ermilow, der Die Dämonen nun als brillantes prophetisches Porträt des modernen Faschismus deutete.

Zu einer dauerhaften Liberalisierung kam es erst mit dem Aufstieg von Chruschtschow. Von bis erschien eine neue, von Leonid Grossman betreute zehnbändige Gesamtausgabe.

Weitere frühe deutsche Übersetzer waren L. Hauff und Paul Styczynski. Im frühen Jahrhundert übersetzte Elisabeth Kaerrick unter dem Pseudonym E.

Die Reihe umfasst 22 Bände und sieben Zusatzbände und erschien zwischen und In der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik schuf der Aufbau-Verlag eine dreizehnbändige Ausgabe, die fertig wurde und das gesamte belletristische Werk umfasst.

Sie erschienen zunächst bei Ammann und von an auch als Fischer -Taschenbücher. Geier hat daneben auch einige kleinere Werke Dostojewskis neu übersetzt.

Auch in anderen europäischen Ländern begann die Übersetzungsarbeit erst nach Dostojewskis Tod. Der Einfluss, den Dostojewski auf die abendländische Geistes- und Literaturgeschichte ausgeübt hat, ist immens und in zahllosen wissenschaftlichen Publikationen beschrieben worden.

In der Auseinandersetzung mit Dostojewskis Romanen bot sich ihm Gelegenheit, sein eigenes hochambivalentes Verhältnis zum Christentum abzuarbeiten.

Jahrzehnte vor der Begründung der Psychoanalyse sondierte Dostojewski minutiös die menschliche Seele, wies ihre inneren Widersprüche und die Macht des Unbewussten auf und bemühte sich um eine Rehabilitierung des Irrationalen.

Die Existenzialisten fühlten sich von Dostojewski angesprochen, weil er den Menschen immer wieder als einen in der Gottverlassenheit ganz auf sich Zurückgeworfenen beschrieben hatte.

In den er Jahren entstand durch Beiträge u. Goldstein und Felix Philipp Ingold eine Debatte über Dostojewskis Antisemitismus , der sich hauptsächlich im Tagebuch gezeigt hat, als stereotype, verächtlich- und lächerlichmachende Zeichnung jüdischer Figuren, die auch in den Aufzeichnungen aus einem Totenhaus , in Schuld und Sühne und in Die Dämonen sichtbar geworden ist.

Dostojewskis Überlegungen zur russischen Identität unter dem Ansturm westlicher Wertvorstellungen haben in jüngerer Zeit Orhan Pamuk angeregt, die türkische Identität neu zu begreifen.

Dazai Osamu. Die hitzige Atmosphäre der Romane, die von religiösen, psychologischen, philosophischen und oft auch literarischen Gedanken übervoll ist, gefiel freilich nicht jedem.

Er ist das Kokain und Morphin der modernen Literatur. Lange bevor Literatur- und Medienwissenschaftler wie Irmela Schneider die Problematik der Literaturadaption theoretisch umrissen haben, war Dostojewski sich über einige zentrale Schwierigkeiten der Transformation von Texten so genau im Klaren, dass er Warwara Obolenskaja, die eine Dramatisierung von Schuld und Sühne begann, nicht nur strategische Ratschläge, sondern auch eine elementare Theorie der Adaption geben konnte.

Anders als die Adaptionen von Werken z. Dostojewski , Dostojewskij und Dostoevsky sind Weiterleitungen auf diesen Artikel. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Dostojewski Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.

Die Spielhallen in Wiesbaden oben und in Baden-Baden unten. Beide besuchte Dostojewskis erstmals Von bis zur Gegenwart. Stefan Zweig: Drei Meister.

Balzac — Dickens — Dostojewski. Insel Verlag, Leipzig , S. Steven G. Eine Schriftstellerexistenz zwischen Aristokratie, Künstlertum und Kommerz.

In: Dostoevsky Studies. Christian Kühn: Dostojewskij und das Geld. In: Deutsche Dostojewskij-Gesellschaft.

In: Enzyklo. Abgerufen am September Neil Heims: Biography of Fyodor Dostoevsky. In: Fyodor Dostoevsky.

Kenneth A. Lantz: The Dostoevsky Encyclopedia. Dezember His Life and Work. In: Harold Bloom Hrsg. Katya Tolstaya: Kaleidoscope.

Dostoevsky and the Early Dialectical Theology. The Quest for the Earthly Paradise. Robert L. The Seeds of Revolt, — Treadgold: The West in Russia and China.

Religious and Secular Thought in Modern Times. Volume 1: Russia — Konstantin Mochulsky: Dostoevsky. Joseph Frank: Dostoevsky.

A Writer in His Time. In: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Dostojewskij-Gesellschaft. In: Michael Wegner Hrsg. Zur internationalen Wirkung der russischen und sowjetischen Literatur im Schiller Universität, Jena In: Peter Sekirin Hrsg.

In: Die Urgestalt der Brüder Karamasoff. Dostojewskis Quellen, Entwürfe und Fragmente. Piper-Verlag, München , S.

In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Princeton, New Jersey , S. Abgerufen am 6. Der Spiegel, Juli Karel van het Reve: Dr.

Freud und Sherlock Holmes. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main Rezension: Reve, Karel van het: Dr. Brief vom März , auf deutsch in: Friedr.

Hitzler Hrsg. Piper, München The Stir of Liberation, — In: W. Leatherbarrow Hrsg. Taylor: Anton Rubinstein. A Life in Music. Socialist Circle, Arrest and Investigation, — Wortlaut des Briefes: V.

Belinsky Letter to N. November Reclam, , S. In: Nord und Süd. Siehe dazu auch Brief 88 Dostojewskis an seinen Bruder Michail vom Dezember Friedr.

Hitzer Hrsg. Gesammelte Briefe — The Years of Ordeal. Ten Years in Siberia: — Ein alter Mann über die Petraschewzen. Alexander Eliasberg Hrsg.

Musarion, München , S. Tagebuch eines Schriftstellers. Alexander E. Dostoevsky entered the academy in January , but only with the help of family members.

Mikhail was refused admission on health grounds and was sent to an academy in Tallinn , Estonia then known as Reval. Dostoevsky disliked the academy, primarily because of his lack of interest in science, mathematics and military engineering and his preference for drawing and architecture.

As his friend Konstantin Trutovsky once said, "There was no student in the entire institution with less of a military bearing than F. He moved clumsily and jerkily; his uniform hung awkwardly on him; and his knapsack, shako and rifle all looked like some sort of fetter he had been forced to wear for a time and which lay heavily on him.

Although he was solitary and inhabited his own literary world, he was respected by his classmates. His reclusiveness and interest in religion earned him the nickname "Monk Photius ".

Signs of Dostoevsky's epilepsy may have first appeared on learning of the death of his father on 16 June , [28] although the reports of a seizure originated from accounts written by his daughter later expanded by Sigmund Freud [29] which are now considered to be unreliable.

His father's official cause of death was an apoplectic stroke, but a neighbour, Pavel Khotiaintsev, accused the father's serfs of murder.

Had the serfs been found guilty and sent to Siberia , Khotiaintsev would have been in a position to buy the vacated land.

The serfs were acquitted in a trial in Tula , but Dostoevsky's brother Andrei perpetuated the story. He visited Mikhail in Reval, and frequently attended concerts, operas, plays and ballets.

During this time, two of his friends introduced him to gambling. On 12 August Dostoevsky took a job as a lieutenant engineer and lived with Adolph Totleben in an apartment owned by Dr.

Rizenkampf, a friend of Mikhail. Rizenkampf characterised him as "no less good-natured and no less courteous than his brother, but when not in a good mood he often looked at everything through dark glasses, became vexed, forgot good manners, and sometimes was carried away to the point of abusiveness and loss of self-awareness".

None were successful, and his financial difficulties led him to write a novel. Dostoevsky completed his first novel, Poor Folk , in May His friend Dmitry Grigorovich , with whom he was sharing an apartment at the time, took the manuscript to the poet Nikolay Nekrasov , who in turn showed it to the renowned and influential literary critic Vissarion Belinsky.

Belinsky described it as Russia's first " social novel ". Dostoevsky felt that his military career would endanger his now flourishing literary career, so he wrote a letter asking to resign his post.

Shortly thereafter, he wrote his second novel, The Double , which appeared in the journal Notes of the Fatherland on 30 January , before being published in February.

Around the same time, Dostoevsky discovered socialism through the writings of French thinkers Fourier , Cabet , Proudhon and Saint-Simon.

Through his relationship with Belinsky he expanded his knowledge of the philosophy of socialism. He was attracted to its logic, its sense of justice and its preoccupation with the destitute and the disadvantaged.

However, his relationship with Belinsky became increasingly strained as Belinsky's atheism and dislike of religion clashed with Dostoevsky's Russian Orthodox beliefs.

Dostoevsky eventually parted with him and his associates. After The Double received negative reviews, Dostoevsky's health declined and he had more frequent seizures, but he continued writing.

From to he released several short stories in the magazine Annals of the Fatherland , including " Mr. These stories were unsuccessful, leaving Dostoevsky once more in financial trouble, so he joined the utopian socialist Betekov circle, a tightly knit community which helped him to survive.

When the circle dissolved, Dostoevsky befriended Apollon Maykov and his brother Valerian. In , on the recommendation of the poet Aleksey Pleshcheyev , [41] he joined the Petrashevsky Circle , founded by Mikhail Petrashevsky , who had proposed social reforms in Russia.

Mikhail Bakunin once wrote to Alexander Herzen that the group was "the most innocent and harmless company" and its members were "systematic opponents of all revolutionary goals and means".

In , the first parts of Netochka Nezvanova , a novel Dostoevsky had been planning since , were published in Annals of the Fatherland , but his banishment ended the project.

Dostoevsky never attempted to complete it. Dostoevsky was accused of reading works by Belinsky, including the banned Letter to Gogol , [46] and of circulating copies of these and other works.

Antonelli, the government agent who had reported the group, wrote in his statement that at least one of the papers criticised Russian politics and religion.

Dostoevsky responded to these charges by declaring that he had read the essays only "as a literary monument, neither more nor less"; he spoke of "personality and human egoism" rather than of politics.

Even so, he and his fellow "conspirators" were arrested on 23 April at the request of Count A. The members were held in the well-defended Peter and Paul Fortress , which housed the most dangerous convicts.

They sentenced the members of the circle to death by firing squad, and the prisoners were taken to Semyonov Place in St Petersburg on 23 December where they were split into three-man groups.

Dostoevsky was the third in the second row; next to him stood Pleshcheyev and Durov. The execution was stayed when a cart delivered a letter from the Tsar commuting the sentence.

Dostoevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk , Siberia, followed by a term of compulsory military service.

After a fourteen-day sleigh ride, the prisoners reached Tobolsk , a prisoner way station. Despite the circumstances, Dostoevsky consoled the other prisoners, such as the Petrashevist Ivan Yastrzhembsky, who was surprised by Dostoevsky's kindness and eventually abandoned his decision to commit suicide.

In Tobolsk, the members received food and clothes from the Decembrist women, as well as several copies of the New Testament with a ten-ruble banknote inside each copy.

Eleven days later, Dostoevsky reached Omsk [48] [50] together with just one other member of the Petrashevsky Circle, the poet Sergei Durov.

In summer, intolerable closeness; in winter, unendurable cold. All the floors were rotten. Filth on the floors an inch thick; one could slip and fall We were packed like herrings in a barrel There was no room to turn around.

From dusk to dawn it was impossible not to behave like pigs Fleas, lice, and black beetles by the bushel Classified as "one of the most dangerous convicts", Dostoevsky had his hands and feet shackled until his release.

He was only permitted to read his New Testament Bible. In addition to his seizures, he had haemorrhoids , lost weight and was "burned by some fever, trembling and feeling too hot or too cold every night".

The smell of the privy pervaded the entire building, and the small bathroom had to suffice for more than people.

Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels. He was respected by most of the other prisoners, and despised by some because of his supposedly xenophobic statements.

After his release on 14 February , Dostoevsky asked Mikhail to help him financially and to send him books by Vico , Guizot , Ranke , Hegel and Kant.

Around November , he met Baron Alexander Egorovich Wrangel, an admirer of his books, who had attended the aborted execution. They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk.

Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short.

He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines.

Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk , where he died in August Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul.

In Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles.

As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life.

Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February , even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage.

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Describing their relationship, he wrote: "Because of her strange, suspicious and fantastic character, we were definitely not happy together, but we could not stop loving each other; and the more unhappy we were, the more attached to each other we became".

They mostly lived apart. In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions , in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation , materialism , Catholicism and Protestantism.

From August to October , Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. He met his second love, Polina Suslova , in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden.

In his wife Maria and his brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family.

The failure of Epoch , the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya , worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy.

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February in the periodical The Russian Messenger , [71] attracting at least new subscribers to the magazine.

Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky , that he would complete The Gambler , a short novel focused on gambling addiction , by November, although he had not yet begun writing it.

One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina.

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance.

His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy. The 7, rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables.

On 14 April , they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. They stayed in Berlin and visited the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden , where he sought inspiration for his writing.

They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt , Darmstadt , Heidelberg and Karlsruhe. They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden , where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table.

In September , Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot , and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January Their first child, Sonya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden , and was born in Geneva on 5 March The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair".

In April , Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate.

After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November , Dostoevsky began writing Demons.

During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot , because he was concerned about potential problems with customs.

The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon originally planned for three months that had lasted over four years.

Back in Russia in July , the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after.

They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued.

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments.

Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov.

Around early the family spent several months in Staraya Russa , a town known for its mineral spa.

Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May , either from typhus or malaria , [87] and Anna developed an abscess on her throat.

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife.

Although they only accepted cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons.

Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year.

In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary.

In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy.

In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: on 11 June for citing the words of Prince Meshchersky without permission, and again on 23 March Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

Dostoevsky accepted. As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia.

Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh. During his stay he began The Adolescent.

He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there.

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January.

The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works.

In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics.

The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him.

With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa. In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again.

He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate. When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul.

This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances. Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures.

Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood.

In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May.

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg.

Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured.

On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow.

On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience.

His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him. Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon.

He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners.

On 25 January , while searching for members of the terrorist organisation Narodnaya Volya "The People's Will" who would soon assassinate Tsar Alexander II, the Tsar's secret police executed a search warrant in the apartment of one of Dostoevsky's neighbours [ citation needed ].

On the following day, Dostoevsky suffered a pulmonary haemorrhage. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder.

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank:. It was this parable of transgression, repentance, and forgiveness that he wished to leave as a last heritage to his children, and it may well be seen as his own ultimate understanding of the meaning of his life and the message of his work.

Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew —15 : "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me?

And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness", and he finished with "Hear now—permit it.

Do not restrain me! It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: [] [].

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit.

Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s. He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale.

Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more.

She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him.

Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends. She wrote that he "became very attracted to me".

Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life.

Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia.

While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people". He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes.

His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything".

In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism.

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great.

In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God.

He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered. He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival ' ".

Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy.

He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally".

He deemed Russian Orthodoxy to be the ideal form of Christianity. For all that, to place politically Dostoevsky is not that simple, but: as a Christian, he rejected the atheistic socialism; as a traditionalist, he rejected the destruction of the institutions and, as a pacifist, any violent method or upheaval led by both progressives or reactionaries.

He supported private property and business rights, and did not agree with many criticisms of the free market from the socialist utopians of his time.

During the Russo-Turkish War , Dostoevsky asserted that war might be necessary if salvation were to be granted.

He wanted the Muslim Ottoman Empire eliminated and the Christian Byzantine Empire restored, and he hoped for the liberation of Balkan Slavs and their unification with the Russian Empire.

Jewish characters in Dostoevsky's works have been described as displaying negative stereotypes. But as you say, its century existence proves that this tribe has exceptional vitality, which would not help, during the course of its history, taking the form of various Status in Statu Dostoevsky held negative views of the Ottoman Turks , dedicating multiple pages to them in his "Writer's Diary", professing the need to have no pity for Turks at war and no regrets in killing Turks and depopulating Istanbul of the Turkish population and shipping it off to Asia.

Dostoevsky was an Orthodox Christian , [] was raised in a religious family and knew the Gospel from a very young age.

Sergius Trinity Monastery. According to an officer at the military academy, Dostoevsky was profoundly religious, followed Orthodox practice, and regularly read the Gospels and Heinrich Zschokke 's Die Stunden der Andacht "Hours of Devotion" , which "preached a sentimental version of Christianity entirely free from dogmatic content and with a strong emphasis on giving Christian love a social application.

In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky revived his faith by looking frequently at the stars. Wrangel said that he was "rather pious, but did not often go to church, and disliked priests, especially the Siberian ones.

But he spoke about Christ ecstatically. Two pilgrimages and two works by Dmitri Rostovsky , an archbishop who influenced Ukrainian and Russian literature by composing groundbreaking religious plays, strengthened his beliefs.

Dostoevsky's canon includes novels, novellas, novelettes , short stories, essays, pamphlets , limericks , epigrams and poems.

He wrote more than letters, a dozen of which are lost. Dostoevsky expressed religious, psychological and philosophical ideas in his writings.

His works explore such themes as suicide, poverty, human manipulation, and morality. Psychological themes include dreaming, first seen in "White Nights", [] and the father-son relationship, beginning in The Adolescent.

The influences of other writers, particularly evident in his early works, led to accusations of plagiarism , [] [] but his style gradually became more individual.

After his release from prison, Dostoevsky incorporated religious themes, especially those of Russian Orthodoxy, into his writing.

Elements of gothic fiction , [] romanticism , [] and satire [] are observable in some of his books. He frequently used autobiographical or semi-autobiographical details.

An important stylistic element in Dostoevsky's writing is polyphony , the simultaneous presence of multiple narrative voices and perspectives.

Polyphony is a literary concept, analogous with musical polyphony , developed by Mikhail Bakhtin on the basis of his analyses of Dostoevsky's works.

Dostoevsky is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential novelists of the Golden Age of Russian literature.

His psychologic sense is overwhelming and visionary. Bakhtin argued that Dostoevsky's use of multiple voices was a major advancement in the development of the novel as a genre.

In his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast , Ernest Hemingway stated that in Dostoevsky "there were things believable and not to be believed, but some so true that they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know".

It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.

In an olive-green postage stamp dedicated to Dostoevsky was released in the Soviet Union, with a print run of 1, copies.

Coetzee featured Dostoevsky as the protagonist in his novel The Master of Petersburg. The Dostoyevskaya metro station in Saint Petersburg was opened on 30 December , and the station of the same name in Moscow was opened on 19 June , the 75th anniversary of the Moscow Metro.

The Moscow station is decorated with murals by artist Ivan Nikolaev depicting scenes from Dostoevsky's works, such as controversial suicides.

Dostoevsky's work did not always gain a positive reception. Some critics, such as Nikolay Dobrolyubov , Ivan Bunin and Vladimir Nabokov , viewed his writing as excessively psychological and philosophical rather than artistic.

Others found fault with chaotic and disorganised plots, and others, like Turgenev, objected to "excessive psychologising" and too-detailed naturalism.

His style was deemed "prolix, repetitious and lacking in polish, balance, restraint and good taste". These characters were compared to those of Hoffmann, an author whom Dostoevsky admired.

Basing his estimation on stated criteria of enduring art and individual genius, Nabokov judges Dostoevsky "not a great writer, but rather a mediocre one—with flashes of excellent humour but, alas, with wastelands of literary platitudes in between".

Nabokov complains that the novels are peopled by "neurotics and lunatics" and states that Dostoevsky's characters do not develop: "We get them all complete at the beginning of the tale and so they remain.

Dostoevsky's books have been translated into more than languages. French, German and Italian translations usually came directly from the original, while English translations were second-hand and of poor quality.

Dostoevsky's works were interpreted in film and on stage in many different countries. Dostoevsky did not refuse permission, but he advised against it, as he believed that "each art corresponds to a series of poetic thoughts, so that one idea cannot be expressed in another non-corresponding form".

His extensive explanations in opposition to the transposition of his works into other media were groundbreaking in fidelity criticism.

He thought that just one episode should be dramatised, or an idea should be taken and incorporated into a separate plot.

After the Russian Revolution , passages of Dostoevsky books were sometimes shortened, although only two books were censored: Demons [] and Diary of a Writer.

Dostoevsky's works of fiction include 15 novels and novellas, 17 short stories, and 5 translations. Many of his longer novels were first published in serialised form in literary magazines and journals.

The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published.

In English many of his novels and stories are known by different titles. Poor Folk is an epistolary novel that describes the relationship between the small, elderly official Makar Devushkin and the young seamstress Varvara Dobroselova, remote relatives who write letters to each other.

Makar's tender, sentimental adoration for Varvara and her confident, warm friendship for him explain their evident preference for a simple life, although it keeps them in humiliating poverty.

An unscrupulous merchant finds the inexperienced girl and hires her as his housewife and guarantor. He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol.

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